Understanding the concepts and methods of real analysis is an essential skill for every undergraduate mathematics student. Written in an easy-to-read style, Real Analysis is a comprehensive introduction to this core subject and is ideal for self-study or as a course textbook for first and second-year undergraduates. Combining an informal style with precision mathematics, Real Analysis covers all the key topics with fully worked examples and exercises with solutions. Featuring: Sequences and series - considering the central notion of a limit.- Continuous functions.- Differentiation.- Integration.- Logarithmic and exponential functions.- Uniform convergence.- Circular functions All these concepts and techniques are deployed in examples in the final chapter to provide the student with a thorough understanding of this challenging subject.
The philosophy of the book, which makes it quite distinct from many existing texts on the subject, is based on treating the concepts of measure and integration starting with the most general abstract setting and then introducing and studying the Lebesgue measure and integration on the real line as an important particular case. The book consists of nine chapters and appendix, with the material flowing from the basic set classes, through measures, outer measures and the general procedure of measure extension, through measurable functions and various types of convergence of sequences of such based on the idea of measure, to the fundamentals of the abstract Lebesgue integration, the basic limit theorems, and the comparison of the Lebesgue and Riemann integrals. Also, studied are Lp spaces, the basics of normed vector spaces, and signed measures. The novel approach based on the Lebesgue measure and integration theory is applied to develop a better understanding of differentiation and extend the classical total change formula linking differentiation with integration to a substantially wider class of functions. Being designed as a text to be used in a classroom, the book constantly calls for the student´s actively mastering the knowledge of the subject matter. There are problems at the end of each chapter, starting with Chapter 2 and totaling at 125. Many important statements are given as problems and frequently referred to in the main body. There are also 358 Exercises throughout the text, including Chapter 1 and the Appendix, which require of the student to prove or verify a statement or an example, fill in certain details in a proof, or provide an intermediate step or a counterexample. They are also an inherent part of the material. More difficult problems are marked with an asterisk, many problems and exercises are supplied with ``existential´´ hints. The book is generous on Examples and contains numerous Remarks accompanying definitions, examples, and statements to discuss certain subtleties, raise questions on whether the converse assertions are true, whenever appropriate, or whether the conditions are essential. With plenty of examples, problems, and exercises, this well-designed text is ideal for a one-semester Master´s level graduate course on real analysis with emphasis on the measure and integration theory for students majoring in mathematics, physics, computer science, and engineering. A concise but profound and detailed presentation of the basics of real analysis with emphasis on the measure and integration theory. Designed for a one-semester graduate course, with plethora of examples, problems, and exercises. Is of interest to students and instructors in mathematics, physics, computer science, and engineering. Prepares the students for more advanced courses in functional analysis and operator theory. ContentsPreliminariesBasic Set ClassesMeasuresExtension of MeasuresMeasurable FunctionsAbstract Lebesgue IntegralLp SpacesDifferentiation and IntegrationSigned MeasuresThe Axiom of Choice and Equivalents
This book is first of all designed as a text for the course usually called ´´theory of functions of a real variable´´. This course is at present cus tomarily offered as a first or second year graduate course in United States universities, although there are signs that this sort of analysis will soon penetrate upper division undergraduate curricula. We have included every topic that we think essential for the training of analysts, and we have also gone down a number of interesting bypaths. We hope too that the book will be useful as a reference for mature mathematicians and other scientific workers. Hence we have presented very general and complete versions of a number of important theorems and constructions. Since these sophisticated versions may be difficult for the beginner, we have given elementary avatars of all important theorems, with appro priate suggestions for skipping. We have given complete definitions, ex planations, and proofs throughout, so that the book should be usable for individual study as well as for a course text. Prerequisites for reading the book are the following. The reader is assumed to know elementary analysis as the subject is set forth, for example, in ToM M. APOSTOL´s Mathematical Analysis [Addison-Wesley Publ. Co., Reading, Mass., 1957], orWALTERRUDIN´s Principles of Mathe matical Analysis [2nd Ed., McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1964].
This is an advanced text for the one- or two-semester course in analysis taught primarily to math, science, computer science, and electrical engineering majors at the junior, senior or graduate level.
From the reviews: ´´Volume 1 covers a basic course in real analysis of one variable and Fourier series. It is well-illustrated, well-motivated and very well-provided with a multitude of unusually useful and accessible exercises. (...) There are three aspects of Courant and John in which it outshines (some) contemporaries: (i) the extensive historical references, (ii) the chapter on numerical methods, and (iii) the two chapters on physics and geometry. The exercises in Courant and John are put together purposefully, and either look numerically interesting, or are intuitively significant, or lead to applications. It is the best text known to the reviewer for anyone trying to make an analysis course less abstract. (...)´´ - The Mathematical Gazette (75.1991.471).
This lively introductory text exposes the student to the rewards of a rigorous study of functions of a real variable. In each chapter, informal discussions of questions that give analysis its inherent fascination are followed by precise, but not overly formal, developments of the techniques needed to make sense of them. By focusing on the unifying themes of approximation and the resolution of paradoxes that arise in the transition from the finite to the infinite, the text turns what could be a daunting cascade of definitions and theorems into a coherent and engaging progression of ideas. Acutely aware of the need for rigor, the student is much better prepared to understand what constitutes a proper mathematical proof and how to write one. Fifteen years of classroom experience with the first edition of Understanding Analysis have solidified and refined the central narrative of the second edition. Roughly 150 new exercises join a selection of the best exercises from the first edition, and three more project-style sections have been added. Investigations of Euler´s computation of ?(2), the Weierstrass Approximation Theorem, and the gamma function are now among the book´s cohort of seminal results serving as motivation and payoff for the beginning student to master the methods of analysis. Review of the first edition: ´´This is a dangerous book. Understanding Analysis is so well-written and the development of the theory so well-motivated that exposing students to it could well lead them to expect such excellence in all their textbooks. ... Understanding Analysis is perfectly titled; if your students read it, that´s what´s going to happen. ... This terrific book will become the text of choice for the single-variable introductory analysis course ... ´´ - Steve Kennedy, MAA Reviews
The third edition of this well known text continues to provide a solid foundation in mathematical analysis for undergraduate and first-year graduate students. The text begins with a discussion of the real number system as a complete ordered field. (Dedekind´s construction is now treated in an appendix to Chapter I.) The topological background needed for the development of convergence, continuity, differentiation and integration is provided in Chapter 2. There is a new section on the gamma function, and many new and interesting exercises are included. This text is part of the Walter Rudin Student Series in Advanced Mathematics.
This is the first monograph that discusses in detail the interactions between Fourier analysis and dynamic economic theories, in particular, business cycles. Many economic theories have analyzed cyclical behaviors of economic variables. In this book, the focus is on a couple of trials: (1) the Kaldor theory and (2) the Slutsky effect. The Kaldor theory tries to explain business fluctuations in terms of nonlinear, 2nd-order ordinary differential equations (ODEs). In order to explain periodic behaviors of a solution, the Hopf-bifurcation theorem frequently plays a key role. Slutsky´s idea is to look at the periodic movement as an overlapping effect of random shocks. The Slutsky process is a weakly stationary process, the periodic (or almost periodic) behavior of which can be analyzed by the Bochner theorem. The goal of this book is to give a comprehensive and rigorous justification of these ideas. Therefore, the aim is first to give a complete theory that supports the Hopf theorem and to prove the existence of periodic solutions of ODEs; and second to explain the mathematical structure of the Bochner theorem and its relation to periodic (or almost periodic) behaviors of weakly stationary processes. Although these two targets are the principal ones, a large number of results from Fourier analysis must be prepared in order to reach these goals. The basic concepts and results from classical as well as generalized Fourier analysis are provided in a systematic way. Prospective readers are assumed to have sufficient knowledge of real, complex analysis. However, necessary economic concepts are explained in the text, making this book accessible even to readers without a background in economics.
In this updated edition of Numbers and Functions, the reader is invited to tackle each of the key concepts of mathematical analysis in turn, progressing from experience through a structured sequence of over 800 problems to concepts, definitions and proofs of classical real analysis.