This lively introductory text exposes the student to the rewards of a rigorous study of functions of a real variable. In each chapter, informal discussions of questions that give analysis its inherent fascination are followed by precise, but not overly formal, developments of the techniques needed to make sense of them. By focusing on the unifying themes of approximation and the resolution of paradoxes that arise in the transition from the finite to the infinite, the text turns what could be a daunting cascade of definitions and theorems into a coherent and engaging progression of ideas. Acutely aware of the need for rigor, the student is much better prepared to understand what constitutes a proper mathematical proof and how to write one. Fifteen years of classroom experience with the first edition of Understanding Analysis have solidified and refined the central narrative of the second edition. Roughly 150 new exercises join a selection of the best exercises from the first edition, and three more project-style sections have been added. Investigations of Euler´s computation of ?(2), the Weierstrass Approximation Theorem, and the gamma function are now among the book´s cohort of seminal results serving as motivation and payoff for the beginning student to master the methods of analysis. Review of the first edition: ´´This is a dangerous book. Understanding Analysis is so well-written and the development of the theory so well-motivated that exposing students to it could well lead them to expect such excellence in all their textbooks. ... Understanding Analysis is perfectly titled; if your students read it, that´s what´s going to happen. ... This terrific book will become the text of choice for the single-variable introductory analysis course ... ´´ - Steve Kennedy, MAA Reviews
Understanding the concepts and methods of real analysis is an essential skill for every undergraduate mathematics student. Written in an easy-to-read style, Real Analysis is a comprehensive introduction to this core subject and is ideal for self-study or as a course textbook for first and second-year undergraduates. Combining an informal style with precision mathematics, Real Analysis covers all the key topics with fully worked examples and exercises with solutions. Featuring: Sequences and series - considering the central notion of a limit.- Continuous functions.- Differentiation.- Integration.- Logarithmic and exponential functions.- Uniform convergence.- Circular functions All these concepts and techniques are deployed in examples in the final chapter to provide the student with a thorough understanding of this challenging subject.
The philosophy of the book, which makes it quite distinct from many existing texts on the subject, is based on treating the concepts of measure and integration starting with the most general abstract setting and then introducing and studying the Lebesgue measure and integration on the real line as an important particular case. The book consists of nine chapters and appendix, with the material flowing from the basic set classes, through measures, outer measures and the general procedure of measure extension, through measurable functions and various types of convergence of sequences of such based on the idea of measure, to the fundamentals of the abstract Lebesgue integration, the basic limit theorems, and the comparison of the Lebesgue and Riemann integrals. Also, studied are Lp spaces, the basics of normed vector spaces, and signed measures. The novel approach based on the Lebesgue measure and integration theory is applied to develop a better understanding of differentiation and extend the classical total change formula linking differentiation with integration to a substantially wider class of functions. Being designed as a text to be used in a classroom, the book constantly calls for the student´s actively mastering the knowledge of the subject matter. There are problems at the end of each chapter, starting with Chapter 2 and totaling at 125. Many important statements are given as problems and frequently referred to in the main body. There are also 358 Exercises throughout the text, including Chapter 1 and the Appendix, which require of the student to prove or verify a statement or an example, fill in certain details in a proof, or provide an intermediate step or a counterexample. They are also an inherent part of the material. More difficult problems are marked with an asterisk, many problems and exercises are supplied with ``existential´´ hints. The book is generous on Examples and contains numerous Remarks accompanying definitions, examples, and statements to discuss certain subtleties, raise questions on whether the converse assertions are true, whenever appropriate, or whether the conditions are essential. With plenty of examples, problems, and exercises, this well-designed text is ideal for a one-semester Master´s level graduate course on real analysis with emphasis on the measure and integration theory for students majoring in mathematics, physics, computer science, and engineering. A concise but profound and detailed presentation of the basics of real analysis with emphasis on the measure and integration theory. Designed for a one-semester graduate course, with plethora of examples, problems, and exercises. Is of interest to students and instructors in mathematics, physics, computer science, and engineering. Prepares the students for more advanced courses in functional analysis and operator theory. ContentsPreliminariesBasic Set ClassesMeasuresExtension of MeasuresMeasurable FunctionsAbstract Lebesgue IntegralLp SpacesDifferentiation and IntegrationSigned MeasuresThe Axiom of Choice and Equivalents
This book provides a systematic introduction to functions of one complex variable. Its novel feature is the consistent use of special color representations - so-called phase portraits - which visualize functions as images on their domains. Reading Visual Complex Functions requires no prerequisites except some basic knowledge of real calculus and plane geometry. The text is self-contained and covers all the main topics usually treated in a first course on complex analysis. With separate chapters on various construction principles, conformal mappings and Riemann surfaces it goes somewhat beyond a standard programme and leads the reader to more advanced themes. In a second storyline, running parallel to the course outlined above, one learns how properties of complex functions are reflected in and can be read off from phase portraits. The book contains more than 200 of these pictorial representations which endow individual faces to analytic functions. Phase portraits enhance the intuitive understanding of concepts in complex analysis and are expected to be useful tools for anybody working with special functions - even experienced researchers may be inspired by the pictures to new and challenging questions. Visual Complex Functions may also serve as a companion to other texts or as a reference work for advanced readers who wish to know more about phase portraits.
This classic work continues to offer a comprehensive treatment of the theory of univariate and tensor-product splines. It will be of interest to researchers and students working in applied analysis, numerical analysis, computer science, and engineering. The material covered provides the reader with the necessary tools for understanding the many applications of splines in such diverse areas as approximation theory, computer-aided geometric design, curve and surface design and fitting, image processing, numerical solution of differential equations, and increasingly in business and the biosciences. This new edition includes a supplement outlining some of the major advances in the theory since 1981, and some 250 new references. It can be used as the main or supplementary text for courses in splines, approximation theory or numerical analysis.
The book extends the high school curriculum and provides a backdrop for later study in calculus, modern algebra, numerical analysis, and complex variable theory. Exercises introduce many techniques and topics in the theory of equations, such as evolution and factorization of polynomials, solution of equations, interpolation, approximation, and congruences. The theory is not treated formally, but rather illustrated through examples. Over 300 problems drawn from journals, contests, and examinations test understanding, ingenuity, and skill. Each chapter ends with a list of hints; there are answers to many of the exercises and solutions to all of the problems. In addition, 69 ´´explorations´´ invite the reader to investigate research problems and related topics.
This book, first published in 2002, contains an introduction to hyperbolic partial differential equations and a powerful class of numerical methods for approximating their solution, including both linear problems and nonlinear conservation laws. This provides an excellent learning environment for understanding wave propagation phenomena and finite volume methods.
This textbook presents a systematic study of the qualitative and geometric theory of nonlinear differential equations and dynamical systems. Although the main topic of the book is the local and global behavior of nonlinear systems and their bifurcations, a thorough treatment of linear systems is given at the beginning of the text. All the material necessary for a clear understanding of the qualitative behavior of dynamical systems is contained in this textbook, including an outline of the proof and examples illustrating the proof of the Hartman-Grobman theorem. In addition to minor corrections and updates throughout, this new edition includes materials on higher order Melnikov theory and the bifurcation of limit cycles for planar systems of differential equations.
This is an introductory level textbook for partial differential equations (PDEs). It is suitable for a one-semester undergraduate level or two-semester graduate level course in PDEs or applied mathematics. This volume is application-oriented and rich in examples. Going through these examples, the reader is able to easily grasp the basics of PDEs. Chapters One to Five are organized to aid understanding of the basic PDEs. They include the first-order equations and the three fundamental second-order equations, i.e. the heat, wave and Laplace equations. Through these equations, we learn the types of problems, how we pose the problems, and the methods of solutions such as the separation of variables and the method of characteristics. The modeling aspects are explained as well. The methods introduced in earlier chapters are developed further in Chapters Six to Twelve. They include the Fourier series, the Fourier and the Laplace transforms, and the Green´s functions. Equations in higher dimensions are also discussed in detail. In this second edition, a new chapter is added and numerous improvements have been made including the reorganization of some chapters. Extensions of nonlinear equations treated in earlier chapters are also discussed. Partial differential equations are becoming a core subject in Engineering and the Sciences. This textbook will greatly benefit those studying in these subjects by covering basic and advanced topics in PDEs based on applications.